The phase two booster vaccine trial, published in The Lancet, looked specifically at people who received two initial doses of AstraZeneca or Pfizer.
AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Janssen, Moderna. The CureVac and Novavax vaccines all produced an increase in immune activity.
Valneva’s vaccine did not produce an increase in immune activity in this study when boosted from an initial dose of Pfizer, but improved immunity in people who had previously received the AstraZeneca vaccine.
After the study was published on Thursday, Valneva shares were down 24%.
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The booster vaccines were given ten to twelve weeks (3 months) after the initial vaccines.
Immunity levels were measured by examining antibody levels four weeks after receiving the booster.
Depending on the combination of the initial and booster vaccines, antibody levels were up to 32 times higher.
Researchers are not yet sure how long this increased immune activity will persist after receiving the booster vaccine.
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The research group differs from current NHS booster vaccine protocols.
The NHS is currently reaching out to eligible people whose second dose was at least six months ago.
Priority is given to people over 40 or who have health problems that increase their risk.
Front-line health workers and social workers are also offered the booster vaccine.
The dose of the booster vaccines used may differ from the initial vaccination and this could affect the frequency of side effects.
The Joint Vaccination and Immunization Committee advised that Pfizer vaccine should be given at full dose for a booster, but Moderna vaccine should be offered at half dose.
Research is still ongoing on the ability of the Omicron variant to evade vaccine immunity.
The more than 30 spike protein modifications mean that existing antibodies may be ineffective against the altered virus.